Sunday, September 8, 2013

Anonymous Roman Republican Denarius, Crawford 110/1a, Wreath

Anonymous Roman Republican Denarius, Wreath
Crawford 110/1a
211 to 208 BC
 

 
 
Early Roman Republican coins were issued anonymously, or without initials or a control mark identifying the moneyer who oversaw production of the coin. In about 211 BC, Romans introduced a new series of coins, the denarius. It was worth 10 Asses, and had a mark of value on the obverse to note the value. The earliest series listed in Crawford's Roman Republican Coinage was a large series, Cr 44. The series has 7 different denominations in gold and silver. Cast and struck bronze are not included in the series. All of the denarii of Cr 44 series had 3 equal length visors on Roma's helmet. This coin is from a later series where the visors are of differing length.  
This coin was listed as a scarce symbol. Crawford estimated 20 obverse and 25 reverse dies. This makes the coin less common, but hardly rare. Sydenham lists the coin as 4, or scarce. I could not find the cin in Grueber! I did find bronze coins with the wreath symbol in Grueber. When I searched on line, I found only a handful of examples and some on the British Museum web site.
 
Country Roman
Type or era Republican
Coin type Denarius
Mint   Uncertain
Issued by Wreath
Issued by Anonymous
Title of issuer
Mint Date -211  -211 to -208
Weight 3.78
Weight - max 4.60
Weight - min 3.51
Weight - avg 3.886
Weight - st dev 0.307
Number 14 I looked several times and found only a few examples. 
Diameter - max 19.33 note the coin is slightly oval
Diameter - min 17.84
Diameter - max  19.3
Diameter - min 19.0
Diameter - avg 19.075
Diameter - st dev 0.150
Metal Ar
Serrated N
Cr 110 / 1a
BMCRR
Sear: #, VF, EF 39 - wreath
RSC: #, VF, EF Anon 20 mm
CRR 278
CRI
NMWar
NMCr
Orientation 8
Orientation
Purchased from http://pics.ebaystatic.com/aw/pics/s.gif,http://pics.ebaystatic.com/aw/pics/s.gif,http://pics.ebaystatic.com/aw/pics/s.gif,http://pics.ebaystatic.com/aw/pics/s.gif
Tom Cederlind
Purchase date
Price 
Currency 
Excahange rate
Grade VF
Grade VF
Centering well centered
Strike good strike, but high features are either worn, lightly struck or from worn dies. It looks like worn dies to me.
Flan flaws none
Style normal for coin, the series is dated 211 - 208 BC by Crawford. The helmet style has one long and two short visors that first appeared in Cr53.
Patination light uneven patina
Damage none
Obverse  Roma
Reverse Dioscuri wreath
Obverse Roma with hair flowing in four locks, winged helmet, wearing bead necklace; behind X. The distinguishing feature of this coin is the hair falling in 4 locks and is used to identify the small number of coins without a wreath.
Reverse Dioscuri riding R, wreath above, below ROMA in linear frame, A in archaic style.
Obverse dies 20
Reverse dies 25


Ten late Roman Imperial bronze coins

Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271


Tetricus II, Emperor of Gallic Empire 273
Gallienus, Co-Augustus (with Valerian) 253 – 260, Augustus 260 - 268. 
 

1.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 18.6 – 19.6 mm; 2.50 g; gVF, excellent portrait of Victorinus and figure of Salus, well centered, all letters on flan, revere die worn some but all features present, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse - SALVS AVG, Salus standing left, feeding serpent rising from altar, holding staff or spear in right hand.
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC 71, Cohen 118, Sear 11181.
2.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 18.8 – 20.4 mm; 2.96 g, VF, good portrait, obverse and reverse well centered, all letters on flan, reverse die worn enough to make features poor, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse - INVICTVS, SOL walking left, raining right hand, whip in left.
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC 114,
3.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 17.7 – 18.6 mm; 2.65 g; gVF,  good portrait of Victorinus and excellent figure of Providentia, flat spot on obverse, well centered, some letters partial or missing due to small flan, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse – [PR]OVIDENTIAAVG, Providentia standing left, baton in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand and globe at foot. Some lettering missing due to small flan.
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC , Cohen 101, Sear 11178
4.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 17.1 – 20.2 mm irregular flan; 2.82 g, VF, TRACES OF SILVERING, excellent portrait of Victorinus and good figure of Pax, well centered, some letters partial or missing due to small flan, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse - PAX AVG – V to left and * to right, Pax standing left, holding branch in right hand and staff in left.
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC 118, Cohen 85, Sear 11168.
5.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 19.2 – 20.8 mm; 2.69 g, gVF, traces of silvering, excellent portrait of Victorinus and good figure of , well centered, some letters partial due to obverse slightly off center, reverse die worn, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse - PIETASAVG, Pietas standing left, holding spear in right hand and sacrificing out of a patera over alter.  
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC 58, Cohen 91, Sear 11176.  
6.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 17.8 – 20.0 mm on irregular flan; 2.84 g, gVF, good portrait of Victorinus and figure of Salus, well centered, some letters partial or missing due to narrow flan, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse - SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding serpent held in her arms.
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC 122, Sear 11179.
7.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 18.3 – 20.5 mm; 3.53 g, gVF, good portrait, obverse and reverse centered on irregular flan, some letters partially off flan, reverse die worn enough to make features poor, brown patina with some traces of silvering
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse - INVICTVS, SOL walking left, raining right hand, whip in left.
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC 114,  
8.       Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271. The Gallic Empire broke away from the Roman Empire from 260 – 274. Victorinus was a successful military commander. He was tribune in 266/267 and co-consul of Rome with Postumus in 268. He succeeded Postumus (Imp of G E 260 – 269) who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city his army had just defeated, Mogontiacum. Postumus was succeeded by Marius, who probably let the troops sack, Mogontiacum. Marius was killed two or three months later and Victorinus was declared Imperor. Victorinus was killed by one of his commanders whose wife he had seduced. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 17.8 – 18.6 mm; 2.69 g, gVF,  some doubling and flatness on portrait of Victorinus and good figure of Providentia with some flat spots, well centered, some letters partial or missing due to small and irregular flan, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG (Imperator = Commander; Caesar = heir to the throne; Pius Felix = dutiful to gods and state; Augustus = supreme authority bestowed by Roman Senate first to Octavian who became the first Augustus)
c.       Reverse – PROVIDENTIAAVG, Providentia standing left, baton in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand and globe at foot.
d.      Mint – Cologne – several potential mints are listed for this coin with Victorinus’s capitol of Cologne listed often. Several “barbaric” coins are attributed to local mints.
e.      RIC , Cohen 101, Sear 11178
9.       Tetricius II, was the son of Tetricus I and had exactly the same name as his father: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus. His date of birth as well as the name of his mother are unknown. In 273 AD Tetricus II was elevated by his father to the rank of Caesar and given the title of princeps iuventutis. On 1 January 274 AD he entered in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) upon his first consulship, which he shared with his father. After the defeat in autumn of 274 AD near Ch├ólons-sur-Marne and subsequent surrender of his father Tetricus I to the emperor Aurelian, Tetricus II was put on display in Rome together with his father during Aurelian's triumph, but then pardoned. All literary sources agree on the fact that his life was spared; according to Aurelius Victor and the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, he even retained his senatorial rank and occupied later on many senatorial offices.
Tetricus I was of noble origin, C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus and was the last emperor of the so-called imperium Galliarum (Gallic Empire). According to Eutropius (Eutrop. 9.10), he had senatorial rank and occupied the post of praeses provinciae Aquitaniae at the time when Victorinus was murdered at Cologne in early 271 AD. Through the influence of Victoria, the mother of Victorinus, who bribed the troops in his favour, Tetricus, although absent, was proclaimed emperor and took the purple near Burdigalia (Bordeaux) (Eutrop. 9.10) in spring of the same year. Tetricus I was recognised as legitimate emperor in Gaul and Britain, but not in Spain
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 17.8 – 18.5 mm; 2.20 g, gVF, very good portrait of Tetricus II, and good reverse strike with some weakness from old die and die crack, well centered, some letters partial or missing due to small flan, brown patina
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Tetricus II facing right. CPIVESVTETRICVSCASE: The first letters in the legend are his name; CASE = Caesar = heir to the throne. This coin was probably struck in 273 AD when he was elevated to Caesar by his father, Tetricus I.
c.       Reverse – PIETASAVGVSTOR (= Imperial Piety. Pietas was a Roman goddess. Romans expressed by this word not only the worship and reverence due towards the gods, but also in an more extended sense applied it to love and charity borne towards parents, children, friends, and neighbours, to their country, prince, and soldiers.); religious instruments of Pontif Maximus: lituus, simpulum, vase, aspersoir; (sacrificial implements).
d.      Mint – Cologne & Trier – are potential mints are listed for this coin.
e.      RIC 258, Cohen 60, Sear  11288
10.   Gallienus, Co-Augustus (with Valerian) 253 – 260, Augustus 260 - 268. 
a.       Bronze Antoninus, dia = 18.1 – 18.5 mm; 2.45 g
b.      Obverse – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Victorinus facing right.
 
A coin flip with the information above is shown below.
 
Aqueduct
Numismatics

asakim5353@msn.com
Victorinus, Emperor of Gallic Empire 269 – 271, a successful military commander, tribune 266/267, co-consul Rome in 268. He succeeded Postumus who was killed when he refused to let his army sack a city they just defeated. Victorinus was killed by a commander whose wife he had seduced. 
Bronze Antoninus, dia = 18.6 – 19.6 mm; 2.50 g; gVF,
Obv – Radiate bust of Victorinus, right. IMPCVICTORINVSPFAVG
Reverse - SALVS AVG, Salus standing left, feeding serpent rising from altar,
RIC 71, Cohen 118, Sear 11181
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